The Optimal Child Custody Agreement

An article published by Romper details new research conducted in Sweden about the best arrangement for child custody agreements. While divorce is often painful and rarely an easy transition, the new study suggests that complete joint custody is the best option for children following a split. Of course, this setup is not sustainable or practical for all couples, but allowing your child to maintain an active relationship with both parents turned out to be extremely important for their mental health.

Of the subjects used in the study, 3,369 were children in nuclear families, 79 lived primarily with one parent, 72 lived exclusively with one parent, and 136 were in a joint physical custody arrangement. The researchers then surveyed parents and teachers about the behavior of the children. In particular, the adult participants completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a popular screening test used to measure emotional symptoms; conduct and peer relationship problems; and inattention. The results indicated no significant difference in SDQ scores between children in joint physical custody and those in a nuclear family, although the children in a nuclear family performed slightly better on average. Children in the custody of a single parent or mostly in the custody of a single parent showed more behavioral issues and emotional symptoms.

The results of the study are hardly surprising. Past research suggests that children fare better emotionally when they have a stronger relationship with both parents. When both parents are active in their child’s life, it leads to less stress for the child on average. Less stress, in turn, leads to fewer emotional problems and behavioral issues. Therefore, splitting time between parents and spending about an equal amount of time with both parents has some benefits.

However, the study is not without shortcomings. For one, researchers at Uppsala University, Karolinska Institutet, and the Centre for Health Equity Studies conducted the study. These are Swedish organizations, so the outcome of the study may not hold across cultures. While the results seemed clear for Swedish children, it is possible that the results are different for Americans. Second, the subjects in the study were very young children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age. Developmental changes are dramatic at that age, so what is true for a 3-year-old may not end up being true for an 8-year-old. Although it is certainly positive to decrease stress for your child, how that occurs can be complicated, and joint physical custody may not be an option for families.

According to the attorneys at https://www.bestafkalaw.com, the health of a child can be at stake in child custody proceedings, so it’s best to hire an attorney to keep proceedings short and amicable. With this new study, it may become easier for parents to agree that sharing custody of their child is the healthiest option for everyone involved—especially their child. Of course, as with all things, the study is a little flawed, but I think this is a great first step toward a future where fewer children “suffer” through a divorce, and merely experience one.

Understanding How Surgical Errors May Occur with Da Vinci

The Da Vinci Surgical System by Intuitive Surgical Inc. is not really all that new. It was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the US on July 11, 2000. While it made waves in the medical community when it was first made commercially available, it was only in the last three years that it became spotlighted for the general public. Unfortunately, it is because of the surgical errors and injuries that have become associated with the technology.

According to the National Injury Law Center, under usual circumstances, liability for surgical errors is placed on the surgeon as medical malpractice. However, with the use of the Da Vinci which is considered a supervisory-controlled robotic surgery system, the problem may be in the tool itself rather than the wielder. To understand how this can happen, one must know how the system works.

The da Vinci is made up of the surgical arm unit which is placed near the patient and a console for the surgeon who will be viewing and controlling the arm unit from several feet away. The system is designed so that the surgeon is the one making all the moves, using a joystick to control the motions of the three or four arms the robot may have. Small incisions are made in the abdomen in which stainless steel rods are placed. One of the rods is equipped with two endoscopic cameras while the others have surgical tools attached. The surgeon is then provided with a 3D image of the patient’s insides without having to actually open up the patient or touch the instruments.

There are two ways that are immediately apparent that surgical errors may occur. One is based on the lack of physical contact between the surgeon and patient could affect how the surgeon intuits the condition of the patient, something that may be balanced out with proper training. The other is the use of electrical instrument which may malfunction at any time. Surgeons have reported numerous incidents of a system freeze or shutdown in the middle of a procedure, necessitating a switch to more traditional surgical methods. Some patients experience inadvertent electrical burns to internal organs. These may all be considered surgical errors leading to injury.

The Da Vinci system has its merits, but it has a long way to go before it can be all that it can be in surgery.